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Mandatory Reporting Requirements: Children

Last Updated: December 2016
State Who is required to report? What timing and procedural requirements apply to reports? Statutory citation(s):
Alabama^
  • Hospitals;
  • Clinics;
  • Sanitariums;
  • Doctors;
  • Physicians;
  • Surgeons;
  • Medical Examiners;
  • Coroners;
  • Dentists;
  • Osteopaths;
  • Optometrists;
  • Chiropractors;
  • Podiatrists;
  • Physical therapists;
  • Nurses;
  • Public and private K-12 employees
  • School teachers and officials;
  • Peace officers;
  • Law enforcement officials;
  • Pharmacists;
  • Social workers;
  • Day care workers or employees;
  • Mental health professionals;
  • Employees of public and private institutions of postsecondary and higher education;
  • Members of the clergy including any duly ordained, licensed, or commissioned minister, pastor, priest, rabbi, or practitioner of any bona fide established church or religious organization, in each case, who regularly, as a vocation, devotes a substantial portion of his or her time and abilities to the service of his or her church or religious organization except for information gained solely in a confidential, privileged communication; and
  • Any other person called upon to render aid or medical assistance to any child.
  • An oral report, either by telephone or direct communication, must be made immediately followed by a written report to a duly constituted authority.
  • The website for the Alabama Department of Human Resources provides that all reports shall be made by telephone and not by email. (http://dhr.alabama.gov/services/Child_Protective_Services/Abuse_Neglect_Reporting.aspx)

Child Abuse Reporting Act, Ala. Code §§ 26-14-1 et seq.

Alaska^

The following persons, when performing their occupational duties or, with respect to the members of a child fatality review team, their appointed duties:

  • Practitioners of the healing arts (including athletic trainers, chiropractors, mental health counselors, social workers, dental hygienists, dentists, health aides, nurses, nurse practitioners, certified nurse aides, occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants, optometrists, osteopaths, naturopaths, physical therapists, physical therapy assistants, physicians, physician’s assistants, psychiatrists, psychologists, psychological associates, audiologists and speech-language pathologists, hearing aid dealers, marital and family therapists, behavior analysts, assistant behavior analysts, religious healing practitioners, acupuncturists, and surgeons);
  • School teachers and school administrative staff members, including athletic coaches (defined as paid leaders or assistants as well as volunteers for more than four hours a week) of public and private schools;
  • Peace officers and officers of the Department of Corrections;
  • Administrative officers of institutions;
  • Child care providers;
  • Paid employees of domestic violence and sexual assault programs, and crisis intervention and prevention programs (as defined in Alaska Stat. § 18.66.990), subject to the carve-out below in “Anything else I should know?”;
  • Paid employees of an organization that provides counseling or treatment to individuals seeking to control their use of drugs or alcohol, subject to the carve-out below in “Anything else I should know?”;
  • Members of a child fatality review team established under Alaska Stat. § 12.65.015(e) or § 12.65.120 or a multidisciplinary child protection team created under Alaska Stat. § 47.14.300; and
  • Volunteers who interact with children in a public or private school for more than four hours a week.
  • Immediately, which means as soon as reasonably possible and no later than 24 hours.

Alaska Stat. §§ 47.17.020, 47.17.023, 47.17.068, 47.17.290.

Arizona^
  • Physicians, physician’s assistants, optometrists, dentists, osteopaths, chiropractors, podiatrists, behavioral health professionals, nurses, psychologists, counselors and social workers who develop the reasonable belief (see below) in the course of treating a patient, subject to the carve-outs in "Anything else I should know?" below;
  • Peace officers;
  • Child welfare investigators;
  • Child protective services workers;
  • Members of the clergy, priests and Christian Science practitioners (unless they gained this information by a confidential communication or confession) subject to the carve-outs in "Anything else I should know?" below;
  • Parents, stepparents and guardians of a minor;
  • School personnel or domestic violence victim advocates who develop the reasonable belief in the course of their employment; and
  • Any other person who has responsibility for the care or treatment of a minor.
  • Reports shall be made immediately electronically or by telephone and shall be followed by a written report within 72 hours.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 13-3620, 13-3623, 36-2281.

Arkansas^
  • Any child care worker or foster care worker;
  • Coroners;
  • Day care center workers;
  • Dentists;
  • Dental hygienists;
  • Domestic abuse advocates;
  • Domestic violence shelter employees;
  • Domestic violence shelter volunteers;
  • Employees of the Department of Human Services;
  • Employees working under contract for the Division of Youth Services of the Department of Human Services;
  • Any foster parent;
  • Judges;
  • Law enforcement officials;
  • Licensed nurses;
  • Any medical personnel who may be engaged in the admission, examination, care, or treatment of persons;
  • Mental health professionals or paraprofessionals;
  • Osteopaths;
  • Peace officer;
  • Physicians;
  • Prosecuting attorneys;
  • Resident interns;
  • Public or private school counselors;
  • School officials, including without limitation institutions of higher education;
  • Social workers;
  • Surgeons;
  • Teachers;
  • Court-appointed special advocate program staff members or volunteers;
  • Juvenile intake or probation officers;
  • Any clergy member, which includes ministers, priests, rabbis, accredited Christian Science practitioners, or other similar functionaries of a religious organization or a person reasonably believed to be so by the person consulting him or her (except to the extent that the clergy member has acquired knowledge of the suspected child maltreatment through communication required to be kept confidential pursuant to the religious discipline of the relevant denomination or faith or received the knowledge of the suspected child maltreatment from the alleged offender in the context of a statement of admission);
  • Employees of a child advocacy center or child safety center;
  • Attorneys ad litem in the course of their duties as attorney ad litem;
  • Sexual abuse advocates and sexual abuse volunteers who work with a victim of sexual abuse as an employee of a community-based victim service or mental health agency (including a paid or volunteer advocate who is based with a local law enforcement agency);
  • Rape crisis advocates and rape crisis volunteers;
  • Child abuse advocates and child abuse volunteers who work with a child victim of abuse or maltreatment as an employee of a community-based victim service or mental health agency (including a paid or volunteer advocate who is based with a local law enforcement agency);
  • Victim/witness coordinators;
  • Victim assistance professionals and victim assistance volunteers;
  • Employees of the Crimes Against Children Division of the Department of Arkansas State Police;
  • Employees of reproductive healthcare facilities;
  • Volunteers at reproductive healthcare facilities; and
  • An individual not otherwise identified above who is engaged in performing his or her employment duties with a nonprofit charitable organization other than a nonprofit hospital.
  • Reports must be made immediately.

Arkansas Child Maltreatment Act, Ark. Code Ann. §§ 12-18-103, 12-18-201, 12-18-202, 12-18-206, 12-18-302, 12-18-402.

California^
  • Teachers;
  • Instructional aides;
  • Teacher’s aides or teacher’s assistants employed by any public or private school;
  • Classified employees of any public school;
  • Administrative officers or supervisors of child welfare and attendance, or certificated pupil personnel employees of any public or private school;
  • Administrators of a public or private day camp;
  • Administrators or employees of a public or private youth center, youth recreation program, or youth organization;
  • Administrators or employees of a public or private organization whose duties require direct contact and supervision of children;
  • Any employee of a county office of education or the California Department of Education, whose duties bring the employee into contact with children on a regular basis;
  • Licensees, administrators, or employees of a licensed community care or child day care facility;
  • Head Start program teachers;
  • Licensing workers or licensing evaluators employed by a licensing agency;
  • Public assistance workers;
  • Employees of a child care institution, including, but not limited to, foster parents, group home personnel, and personnel of residential care facilities;
  • Social workers, probation officers, or parole officers;
  • Employees of a school district police or security department;
  • Any person who is an administrator or presenter of, or a counselor in, a child abuse prevention program in any public or private school;
  • District attorney investigators, inspectors, or local child support agency caseworkers (except in certain limited circumstances);
  • Peace officers;
  • Firefighters, except for volunteer firefighters;
  • Physicians, surgeons, psychiatrists, psychologists, dentists, residents, interns, podiatrists, chiropractors, licensed nurses, dental hygienists, optometrists, marriage and family therapists, clinical social workers, professional clinical counselors, and any other persons who are currently licensed under Division 2 of the Business and Professions Code;
  • Any emergency medical technicians I or II, paramedics, or others certified under Division 2.5 of the Health and Safety Code;
  • Psychological assistants registered under Section 2913 of the Business and Professions Code;
  • Marriage and family therapist trainees;
  • Unlicensed marriage and family therapist interns registered under Section 4980.44 of the Business and Professions Code;
  • State or county public health employees who treats a minor for venereal disease or any other condition;
  • Coroners;
  • Medical examiners, or any other persons who performs autopsies;
  • Commercial film and photographic print processors (i.e., any person who develops exposed photographic film into negatives, slides, or prints, or who makes prints from negatives or slides, for compensation, including any employee of such a person (but excluding a person who develops film or makes prints for a public agency) subject to the carve-out described under “Anything else I should know?”;
  • Child visitation monitors (i.e., any person who, for financial compensation, acts as monitor of a visit between a child and any other person when the monitoring of that visit has been ordered by a court of law);
  • Animal control officers or humane society officers (i.e., any person employed by a city, county, or city and county for the purpose of enforcing animal control laws or regulations or any person appointed or employed by a public or private entity as a humane officer under applicable regulations);
  • Clergy members, including priests, rabbis, ministers, religious practitioners or similar functionaries of a church, temple or recognized denomination or organization (except when knowledge or reasonable suspicion is acquired during a penitential communication);
  • Any custodian of records of a clergy member;
  • Any employee of any police department, county sheriff’s department, county probation department, or county welfare department;
  • Employees or volunteers of a Court Appointed Special Advocate program;
  • Custodial officers;
  • Any person providing services to a minor child;
  • Alcohol or drug counselors (i.e., persons providing counseling, therapy, or other clinical services for a state licensed or certified drug, alcohol, or drug and alcohol treatment program (except that alcohol or drug abuse, or both alcohol and drug abuse, is not in and of itself a sufficient basis for reporting child abuse or neglect))
  • Clinical counselor trainees registered under the business and professions code;
  • Clinical counselor interns registered under the business and professions code;
  • An employee or administrator of a public or private postsecondary educational institution, whose duties bring the administrator or employee into contact with children on a regular basis or who supervises those whose duties bring the administrator or employee into contact with children on a regular basis, as to child abuse or neglect occurring on that institution’s premises or at an official activity of, or program conducted by, the institution;
  • An athletic coach, athletic administrator, or athletic director employed by any public or private school that provides any combination of instruction for kindergarten, or grades 1 to 12, inclusive;
  • A commercial computer technician as specified in subdivision (e) of Section 11166. “Commercial computer technician” means a person who works for a company that is in the business of repairing, installing, or otherwise servicing a computer or computer component, including, but not limited to, a computer part, device, memory storage or recording mechanism, auxiliary storage recording or memory capacity, or any other material relating to the operation and maintenance of a computer or computer network system, for a fee. An employer who provides an electronic communications service or a remote computing service to the public shall be deemed to comply with this article if that employer complies with Section 2258A of Title 18 of the United States Code (subject to the carve-out described under “Anything else I should know?”); and
  • Any athletic coach, including, but not limited to, an assistant coach or a graduate assistant involved in coaching, at public or private postsecondary educational institutions.
  • An initial report must be made immediately or as soon as is practicably possible by telephone. The mandated reporter must also prepare and send, fax, or electronically transmit a written follow-up report within 36 hours of receiving the information concerning the incident.
  • Any mandated reporter who knows or reasonably suspects that the home or institution in which a child resides is unsuitable for the child because of abuse or neglect of the child shall bring the condition to the attention of the agency to which, and at the same time as, he or she makes a report of the abuse or neglect.
  • When two or more persons, who are required to report, jointly have knowledge of a known or suspected instance of child abuse or neglect, and where there is agreement among them, the telephone report may be made by a member of the team selected by mutual agreement and a single report may be made and signed by the selected member of the reporting team. Any member who has knowledge that the member designated to report has failed to do so shall thereafter make the report.

Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Act, Cal. Penal Code §§ 11164 et seq. 

Colorado^
  • Physicians or surgeons, including physicians in training;
  • Child health associates;
  • Medical examiners or coroners;
  • Dentists;
  • Osteopaths;
  • Optometrists;
  • Chiropractors;
  • Podiatrists;
  • Registered nurses or licensed practical nurses;
  • Hospital personnel engaged in the admission, care, or treatment of patients;
  • Christian science practitioners;
  • Public or private school officials or employees;
  • Social workers or worker in any facility or agency that is licensed or certified pursuant to part 1 of article 6 of title 26;
  • Mental health professionals;
  • Dental hygienists;
  • Psychologists;
  • Physical therapists;
  • Veterinarians;
  • Peace officers;
  • Pharmacists;
  • Commercial film and photographic print processors;
  • Firefighters (i.e., an officer of member of a fire department or fire protection or fire-fighting agency of the state, or any municipal or quasi-municipal corporation in Colorado, whether that person is a volunteer or receives compensation for services rendered as a firefighter);
  • Victim’s advocates (as defined below);
  • Licensed professional counselors;
  • Licensed marriage and family therapists;
  • Registered psychotherapists;
  • Clergy members (i.e., priests, rabbis, duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed ministers of a church, members of a religious order, or recognized leaders of any religious body) (but not if the reasonable cause is acquired through a privileged communication);
  • Registered dietitians;
  • Workers in the state department of human services;
  • Juvenile parole and probation officers;
  • Child and family investigators;
  • Officers and agents of the state bureau of animal protection;
  • Animal control officer;
  • The child protection ombudsmen; and
  • Educators providing services through a federal special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and children;
  • Directors, coaches, assistant coaches, or athletic program personnel employed by a private sports organization or program. “Employed” means that an individual is compensated beyond reimbursement for his or her expenses related to the private sports organization or program;
  • A person who is registered as a psychologist candidate pursuant to section 12-43-304(7), C.R.S., marriage and family therapist candidate pursuant to section 12-43-504(5), C.R.S., or licensed professional counselor candidate pursuant to section 12-43-603(5), C.R.S., or who is described in section 12-43-215, C.R.S; and
  • Emergency medical service providers, as defined in sections 25-3.5-103(8) and 25-3.5-103(12), C.R.S., and certified pursuant to part 2 of article 3.5 of title 25, C.R.S.

In addition, any commercial film and photographic print processor who has knowledge of or observes, within the scope of his or her professional capacity or employment, any film, photograph, video tape, negative or slide depicting a child engaged in an act of sexual conduct shall report such fact to a local law enforcement agency immediately or as soon as practically possible by telephone and shall prepare and send a written report of it with a copy of the film photograph, videotape, negative, or slide attached within 36 hours of receiving the information concerning the incident.

  • An initial report must be made “immediately.”  A written follow-up report shall be made “promptly.” 

Child Protection Act of 1987, Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 19-3-301 et seq.

Connecticut^
  • Physicians or surgeons;
  • Resident physicians or interns, whether or not licensed;
  • Registered nurses;
  • Licensed practical nurses;
  • Medical examiners;
  • Dentists;
  • Dental hygienists;
  • Psychologists;
  • School employees (i.e., a teacher, substitute teacher, school administrator, school superintendent, guidance counselor, psychologist, social worker, nurse, physician, school paraprofessional or coach employed by a local or regional board of education or a private elementary, middle or high school or working in a public or private elementary, middle or high school; or any other person who, in the performance of his or her duties, has regular contact with students and who provides services to or on behalf of students enrolled in (i) a public elementary, middle or high school, pursuant to a contract with the local or regional board of education, or (ii) a private elementary, middle or high school, pursuant to a contract with the supervisory agent of such private school);
  • Coaches or directors of intramural, interscholastic or youth athletics who are 18 years of age or older; coaches or directors of a private sports organization or team who are 18 years of age or older; administrators, faculty, staff, athletic directors or athletic trainers employed by a constituent unit of the state system of higher education or private institutions of higher education who are 18 years of age or older;
  • Social workers;
  • Any person who holds or is issued a coaching permit by the State Board of Education, is a coach of intramural or interscholastic athletics and is 18 years of age or older;
  • Any individual who is employed as a coach or director of youth athletics and is 18 years of age or older;
  • Any individual who is employed as a coach or director of a private youth sports organization, league or team and is 18 years of age or older;
  • Any paid administrator, faculty, staff, athletic director, athletic coach or athletic trainer employed by a public or private institution of higher education who is 18 years of age or older, excluding student employees;
  • Police officers;
  • Juvenile or adult probation officers;
  • Juvenile or adult parole officers;
  • Members of the clergy;
  • Pharmacists;
  • Physical therapists;
  • Optometrists;
  • Chiropractors;
  • Podiatrists;
  • Mental health professionals;
  • Physician assistants;
  • Licensed or certified emergency medical services providers;
  • Licensed or certified alcohol and drug counselors;
  • Licensed marital and family therapists;
  • Sexual assault counselor or a battered women’s counselors as defined in section 52-146k of the General Statutes of Connecticut;
  • Licensed professional counselors;
  • Licensed foster parents;
  • Any person paid to care for a child in any public or private facility, child day care center, group day care home or family day care home licensed by the state;
  • Employees of the Department of Children and Families;
  • Employees of the Department of Public Health;
  • Employees of the Office of Early Childhood who are responsible for the licensing of child care centers, group day care homes, family day care homes or youth camps;
  • The Child Advocate and any employees of the Office of the Child Advocate; and

Any family relations counselor, family relations counselor trainee or family services supervisor employed by the Judicial Department.

  • An oral report shall be made by telephone or in person as soon as practicable but not later than 12 hours after the mandated reporter has reasonable cause to suspect or believe that a child has been abused or neglected or placed in imminent risk of serious harm. Not later than 48 hours of making an oral report, a mandated reporter shall submit a written report.

Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 17a-93, 17a-101, 17a-101(a)-(d), 17a-103, 17a-104, 46b-120, 52-146k.

Delaware^
  • Any person, agency, organization or entity who knows or in good faith suspects child abuse or neglect shall make a report. For purposes of this section, “person” shall include, but shall not be limited to, any physician, any other person in the healing arts including any person licensed to render services in medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, any intern, resident, nurse, school employee, social worker, psychologist, medical examiner, hospital, health care institution, the Medical Society of Delaware or law enforcement agency.
  • Note: The Delaware Attorney General has indicated that this provision refers to any other person with knowledge, suggesting that everyone is a potential mandated reporter.  However, a Delaware state court decision suggested that only those enumerated positions above are mandatory reporters.  See Hedrick v. Quest Diagnostics Clinical Labs., 807 A.2d 584, 589-90 (Del. Super. 2002). 
  • Because the law is unclear on this issue, everyone should report all instances of suspected child abuse or neglect to avoid any criminal or civil liability. 
  • No individual with knowledge of child abuse or neglect or knowledge that leads to a good-faith suspicion of child abuse or neglect shall relay on another individual who has less direct knowledge to call the below-referenced report line.
  • An oral report shall be made immediately and can be made through the 24-hour statewide toll-free hotline (1-800-292-9582) or the online reporting system at http://kids.delaware.gov/fs/fs_iseethesigns.shtml.
  • A written report must be made if requested.

Delaware Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, Del. Code Ann. tit. 16 §§ 901et seq.; Del. Op. Att’y Gen. 3W-025. 

District of Columbia^

Any of the following, when acting in his or her professional or official capacity:

  • Child and Family Services Agency employees, agents, and contractors;
  • Physicians;
  • Psychologists;
  • Medical examiners;
  • Dentists,
  • Chiropractors;
  • Registered nurses;
  • Licensed practical nurses;
  • Person involved in the care and treatment of patients;
  • Law-enforcement officers;
  • Humane officers of any agency charged with the enforcement of animal cruelty laws;
  • School officials;
  • Teachers;
  • Athletic coaches;
  • Department of Parks and Recreation employees;
  • Public housing resident managers;
  • Social service workers;
  • Day care workers,
  • Human trafficking counselors;
  • Domestic violence counselors; and
  • Mental health professionals.
  • Such persons are not required to report when employed by a lawyer who is providing representation in a criminal, civil, including family law, or delinquency matter and the basis for the suspicion arises solely in the course of that representation.
  • An oral report shall be made immediately, with a written report to follow, if requested by the police or agency or if the abuse involves drug-related activity (except that licensed health professionals, law enforcement officers, or human officers of any agency charged with the enforcement of animal cruelty laws (except an undercover officer) who have reasonable cause to believe that a child is abused as a result of inadequate care, control, or subsistence in the home environment due to exposure to drug-related activity must report such belief immediately in writing to the Child and Family Services Agency).

Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Act of 1977, D.C. Code §§ 4-1321.01 et seq

Florida^
  • Any person.
  • Reports must be submitted immediately and can be oral, written, or electronically transmitted, except that, if the report is of an instance of known or suspected child abuse involving impregnation of a child under 16 years of age by a person 21 years of age or older, then the report shall be made immediately to the appropriate county sheriff’s office or other appropriate law enforcement agency.
  • If the report is of an instance of known or suspected child abuse, these reporting provisions do not apply to health care professionals or other persons who provide medical or counseling services to pregnant children when such reporting would interfere with the provision of medical services.
  • The department’s central abuse hotline shall be able to receive all reports of known or suspected child abuse, abandonment, or neglect, by any person, at any hour of the day or night, any day of the week.

Fla. Stat. §§ 39.01, 39.201-206.

Georgia^
  • Physicians licensed to practice medicine, physician assistants, interns, or residents;
  • Hospital or medical personnel;
  • Dentists;
  • Licensed psychologists and persons participating in internships to obtain licensing;
  • Podiatrists;
  • Registered professional nurses or licensed practical nurses or nurse’s aides;
  • Professional counselors, social workers, or licensed marriage and family therapists;
  • School teachers;
  • School administrators;
  • School guidance counselors, visiting teachers, school social workers, or school psychologists;
  • Child welfare agency personnel;
  • Child-counseling personnel;
  • Child service organization personnel;
  • Law enforcement personnel;
  • Reproductive health care facilities or pregnancy resource center personnel and volunteers; and
  • Persons who process or produce visual or printed matter.
  • An oral report shall be made immediately, but in no case later than 24 hours from the time there is reasonable cause to believe a child has been abused, by telephone or otherwise and shall be followed by a report in writing, if requested, to a child welfare agency providing protective services, as designated by the Department of Human Services, or to an appropriate police authority or district attorney.

Ga. Code Ann. § 19-7-5 and § 16-12-100 et seq; May v. State, 761 S.E.2d 38 (2015); O’Heron v. Blaney, 583 S.E.2d 834 (2003).

Guam^

Any person who, in the course of his or her employment, occupation or practice of his or her profession, comes into contact with children shall report including but not limited to any

  • licensed physician;
  • medical examiner;
  • dentist;
  • osteopath;
  • optometrist;
  • chiropractor;
  • podiatrist;
  • intern;
  • registered nurse;
  • licensed practical nurse;
  • hospital personnel engaged in the admission, examination, care or treatment of persons;
  • Christian Science practitioner;
  • Clergy member of any religious faith, or other similar functionary or employee of any church, place of worship, or other religious organization whose primary duties consist of teaching, spreading the faith, church governance, supervision of a religious order, or supervision or participation in religious ritual and worship;
  • school administrator;
  • school teacher;
  • school nurses;
  • school counselor;
  • social services worker;
  • day care center worker;
  • any other child care or foster care worker;
  • mental health professional, and
  • peace officer or law enforcement official.
  • Reports shall be made immediately by telephone and followed up in writing within 48 hours after the oral report.

19 G.C.A. §§ 13101, 13201, 13202, 13203, 13205, 13206, 13207.

Hawaii^

Any of the following persons, in their professional or official capacity:

  • Any licensed or registered professional of the healing arts or any health-related occupation who examines, attends, treats, or provides other professional or specialized services, including but not limited to physicians, including physicians in training, psychologists, dentists, nurses, osteopathic physicians and surgeons, optometrists, chiropractors, podiatrists, pharmacists, and other health-related professionals;
  • Employees or officers of any public or private school;
  • Employees or officers of any public or private agency or institution, or other individuals, providing social, medical, hospital, or mental health services including financial assistance;
  • Employees or officers of any law enforcement agency, including but not limited to the courts, police departments, department of public safety, correctional institutions, and parole or probation offices;
  • Individual providers of child care, or employees or officers of any licensed or registered child care facility, foster home, or similar institution;
  • Medical examiners or coroners; and
  • Employees of any public or private agency providing recreational or sports activities.
  • Oral report is to be made immediately. The written report should follow oral report as soon as possible.

HRS §§ 350-1, 350-1.1, 350-1.2, 350-1.3, 350-1.4, 350-1.5, 350-3.

Idaho^
  • Any person, including but not limited to: 
    • Physicians;
    • Residents on a hospital staff;
    • Interns;
    • Nurses;
    • Coroners;
    • School teachers;
    • Day care personnel;
    • Social workers; or
    • Other person.
  • A duly ordained minister of religion is not a mandatory reporter with regard to any confession or confidential communication made to him in his ecclesiastical capacity in the course of discipline enjoined by the church to which he belongs if: a) the church qualifies as tax-exempt under federal law; b) the confession or confidential communication was made directly to the duly ordained minister of religion; and c) the confession or confidential communication was made in the manner and context which places the duly ordained minister of religion specifically and strictly under a level of confidentiality that is considered inviolate by canon law or church doctrine.
  • A duly ordained minister of religion is a person who has been ordained or set apart, in accordance with the ceremonial, ritual or discipline of a church or religious organization which has been established on the basis of a community of religious faith, belief, doctrines and practices, to hear confessions and confidential communications in accordance with the bona fide doctrines or discipline of that church or religious organization.
  • Must report within 24 hours.

Id. Code §§ 16-1602; 16-1605; 16-1606; 16-1607.

Illinois^
  • Any of the following persons or entities, in their professional or official capacity, having reasonable cause to believe a child known to them in their professional or official capacity may be an abused child or a neglected child:
    • Physician;
    • Resident;
    • Intern;
    • Hospital;
    • Hospital administrator;
    • Personnel engaged in the examination, care and treatment persons;
    • Surgeon;
    • Dentist;
    • Dental hygienist;
    • Osteopath;
    • Chiropractor;
    • Podiatrist;
    • Physician assistant;
    • Substance abuse treatment personnel;
    • Funeral home director or employee;
    • Coroner;
    • Medical Examiner;
    • Emergency medical technician;
    • Acupuncturist;
    • Crisis line or hotline personnel;
    • School personnel (including administrators and both certified and non-certified school employees);
    • Personnel of institutions of higher education;
    • Educational advocate assigned to a child pursuant to School Code;
    • Member of a school board or the Chicago Board of Education or the governing body of a private school (but only to the extent required in accordance with other provisions of this Section expressly concerning the duty of school board members to report suspected child abuse);
    • Truant officers;
    • Social workers;
    • Social Services administrator;
    • Domestic violence program personnel;
    • Registered nurse;
    • Licensed practical nurse;
    • Genetic counselor;
    • Respiratory care practitioner;
    • Advanced practice nurse;
    • Home health aide;
    • Director or staff assistant of a nursery school or a child day care center, recreational or athletic program or facility personnel;
    • Early intervention provider as defined in the Early Intervention Services System Act;
    • Law enforcement officer;
    • Licensed professional counselor;
    • Licensed clinical professional counselor;
    • Registered psychologist and assistants working under direct supervision of a psychologist, psychiatrist, or field personnel of the Department of Health Care and Family Services, Juvenile Justice, Public Health, Human Services, Corrections, Human Rights, or Children and Family Services;
    • Supervisor and administrator of general assistance under the Illinois Public Aid Code;
    • Probation officer;
    • Animal control officer or Illinois Department of Agriculture Bureau of Animal Health and Welfare field investigator;
    • Any other foster parent, homemaker or child care worker; 
    • Any member of the clergy having reasonable cause to believe that a child known to that member of the clergy in his or her professional capacity may be an abused child as a result of a sex offense; and
    • Any physician, physician’s assistant, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, medical technician, certified nursing assistant, social worker, or licensed professional counselor of any office, clinic, or any other physical location that provides abortions, abortion referrals, or contraceptives having reasonable cause to believe a child known to him or her in his or her professional or official capacity may be an abused child or a neglected child.
  • Must report suspected abuse or neglect immediately.
  • All reports by mandatory reporters must be confirmed in writing to the appropriate Child Protective Services Unit within 48 hours of any initial report.

Abused and Neglected Child Reporting Act, 325 ILCS §§ 5/3, 5/4, 5/4.1, 5/4.02, 5/4.5, 5/7, 5/7.6, 5/9; 89 ILAC § 300.30. 

Indiana^
  • Any person.
  • An oral report of the suspected abuse or neglect shall be made immediately.

Ind. Code Ann.§§ 31-9-2-13, 31-9-2-14, 31-25-2-1, 31-33-1-2, 31-33-5-1, 31-33-5-2, 31-33-5-3, 31-33-5-4, 31-33-6-1, 31-33-6-2, 31-33-10-1, 31-33-22-1, 31-33-22-3, 31–34–1–1, 31–34–1–2, 31–34–1–3, 31–34–1–4, 31–34–1–5, 31–34–1–10, 31–34–1–11.

Iowa^
  • Every health practitioner who, in the scope of professional practice, examines, attends, or treats a child and who reasonably believes the child has been abused, including a health practitioner who receives information confirming that a child is infected with a sexually transmitted disease. A health practitioner includes:
    • Licensed physician and surgeon;
    • Osteopathic physician and surgeon;
    • Dentist;
    • Optometrist;
    • Podiatric physician;
    • Chiropractor;
    • A resident or intern in any of such professions;
    • A licensed dental hygienist;
    • A registered nurse or licensed practical nurse;
    • A physician assistant; and
    • An emergency medical care provider.
  • Any of the following persons who, in the scope of professional practice or their employment responsibilities, examines, attends, counsels, or treats a child and reasonably believes a child has suffered abuse, and:
    • A social worker;
    • An employee or operator of a public or private health care facility;
    • A certified psychologist;
    • A licensed school employee, certified para-educator, holder of a coaching authorization issued by the state, or an instructor employed by a community college;
    • An employee or operator of a licensed child care center, registered child development home, Head Start program, Family Development and Self-Sufficiency Grant Program regulated by the state, or Healthy Opportunities for Parents to Experience Success-Healthy Families Iowa Program;
    • An employee or operator of a substance abuse program or facility licensed by the state;
    • An employee of a Department of Human Services institution regulated by the state;
    • An employee or operator of a juvenile detention or juvenile shelter care facility approved by the state;
    • An employee or operator of a foster care facility licensed or approved by the state;
    • An employee or operator of a mental health center;
    • A peace officer;
    • A counselor or mental health professional (as defined below); and
    • An employee or operator of a provider of children’s services funded under a federally-approved medical assistance home and community-based services waiver.
  • Reports by mandatory reporters must be made both orally and in writing. Reports made by permissive reporters may be oral, written or both.
  • Oral reports shall be made within 24 hours.  Written reports shall be made within 48 hours after the oral report.

Iowa Code §§ 232.68, 232.69, 232.70, 232.73, 232.75.

Kansas^
  • Any of the following persons with reason to suspect that a child has been harmed as a result of physical, mental or emotional abuse or neglect or sexual abuse:
    • Persons licensed to practice the healing arts, dentistry and optometry;
    • Persons engaged in postgraduate training programs approved by the state board of healing arts;
    • Licensed professional or practical nurses;
    • Chief administrative officers of medical care facilities;
    • Licensed psychologists;
    • Licensed masters level psychologists;
    • Licensed clinical psychotherapists;
    • Licensed social workers;
    • Licensed marriage and family therapists;
    • Licensed clinical marriage and family therapists;
    • Licensed professional counselors;
    • Licensed clinical professional counselors;
    • Registered alcohol and drug abuse counselors;
    • Teachers, school administrators or other employees of an educational institution which the child is attending;
    • Persons licensed by the secretary of health and environment to provide child care services or the employees of persons so licensed at the place where the child care services are being provided to the child;
    • Firefighters;
    • Emergency medical services personnel;
    • Law enforcement officers;
    • Juvenile intake and assessment workers;
    • Court services officers and community corrections officers;
    • Case managers appointed under state regulations;
    • Mediators appointed under state regulations; and
    • Any person employed by or who works as a volunteer for any organization, whether for profit or not-for-profit, that provides social services to pregnant teenagers, including, but not limited to, counseling, adoption services, and pregnancy education and maintenance.
  • Any person who has reason to suspect that a child may be a child in need of care.
  • Reports shall be made promptly.
  • The report may be made orally and shall be followed by a written report, if requested.
  • When reporting a suspicion that a child may be in need of care, the reporter shall disclose protected health information freely and cooperate fully with the secretary and law enforcement throughout the investigation and any subsequent legal process.

K.S.A. §§ 38-101, 38-2202, 38-2223, 38-2224; In re Pace, 989 P. 2d 297, 298.

Kentucky^
  • Any person.
  • The following persons are required to submit written reports, if requested:
    • physician;
    • osteopathic physician;
    • nurse,
    • teacher;
    • school personnel;
    • social worker;
    • coroner;
    • medical examiner;
    • child-caring personnel;
    • resident;
    • intern;
    • chiropractor;
    • dentist;
    • optometrist;
    • emergency medical technician;
    • paramedic;
    • health professional;
    • mental health professional;
    • peace officer; and
    • any organization or agency for any of the above.
  • An oral or written report must be made immediately. If a written report is requested, it must be made within 48 hours of the original oral report.

K.R.S. §§ 600.020, 620.030, 620.050 194A.540.

Louisiana^
  • Any of the following individuals performing their occupational duties:
    • Health practitioner, which is any individual who provides health care services, including a physician, surgeon, physical therapist, dentist, resident, intern, hospital staff member, podiatrist, chiropractor, licensed nurse, nursing aide, dental hygienist, any emergency medical technician, a paramedic, optometrist, medical examiner, or coroner, who diagnoses, examines, or treats a child or his family;
    • Mental health/social service practitioner, which is any individual who provides mental health care or social service diagnosis, assessment, counseling, or treatment, including a psychiatrist, psychologist, marriage or family counselor, social worker, member of the clergy, aide, or other individual who provides counseling services to a child or his family (note that in the following limited circumstances, a mental health/social service practitioner shall not be considered a mandatory reporter: (1) when the practitioner is engaged by an attorney to assist in the rendition of professional legal services to that child; (2) when the information that would serve as the basis for reporting arises in furtherance of facilitating the rendition of those professional legal services to that child; and (3) when the information that would serve as the basis for reporting is documented by the mental health/social service practitioner (which documentation must be retained by the practitioner until one year after the child has reached the age of majority);
    • Member of the clergy, which is any priest, rabbi, duly ordained clerical deacon or minister, Christian Science practitioner, or other similarly situated functionary of a religious organization, except that a member of the clergy is not required to report a confidential communication from a person to a member of the clergy who, in the course of the discipline or practice of that church, denomination, or organization, is authorized or accustomed to hearing confidential communications, and under the discipline or tenets of the church, denomination, or organization has a duty to keep such communications confidential. In that instance, he shall encourage that person to report the allegations to the appropriate authorities ;
    • Teaching or child care provider, which is any person who provides or assists in the teaching, training and supervision of a child, including any public or private teacher, teacher’s aide, instructional aide, school principal, school staff member, bus driver, coach, professor, technical or vocational instructor, technical or vocational school staff member, college or university administrator, college or university staff member, social worker, probation officer, foster home parent, group home or other child care institutional staff member, personnel of residential home facilities, a licensed or unlicensed day care provider, or any individual who provides such services to a child in a voluntary or professional capacity;
    • Police officers or law enforcement officials;
    • Commercial film and photographic print processor, which is any person who develops exposed photographic film into negatives, slides, or prints, or who makes prints from negatives or slides for compensation;
    • Appointed mediators;
    • Appointed parenting coordinators;
    • Court-appointed special advocates (CASA) volunteers under the supervision of a CASA program;
    • School coaches, including but not limited to public technical or vocational school, community college, college, or university coaches and coaches of intramural or interscholastic athletics; and
    • Organizational or youth activity provider, which is any person who provides organized activities for children, including administrators, employees, or volunteers of any day camp, summer camp, youth center, or youth recreation programs or any other organization that provides organized activities for children.
    • Permitted Reporters: Any other person having cause to believe that a child’s physical or mental health or welfare is endangered as a result of abuse or neglect, including a judge of any court of Louisiana.
  • Must report immediately. If mandatory reporter made initial oral report, the reporter must follow with a written report within five days to the local child protection unit of the Louisiana Department of Children and Family Services or, if necessary, to the local law enforcement agency.
  • An optional form may be used for the report and can be found at: http://www.dss.state.la.us/assets/docs/searchable/OCS/CPI-2.pdf

La. Ch.C. Art. 603, 609, 610, 611; La. R.S. 14:403.

Maine^
  • Any of the following persons or entities, when acting in a professional capacity:
    • Allopathic or osteopathic physician, resident or intern;
    • Emergency medical services person;
    • Medical examiner;
    • Physician’s assistant;
    •  Dentist;
    • Dental hygienist;
    • Dental assistant;
    •  Chiropractor;
    •  Podiatrist;
    • Registered or licensed practical nurse;
    •  Teacher;
    • Guidance counselor;
    • School official;
    • Youth camp administrator or counselor;
    • Social worker;
    • Court appointed special advocate or guardian ad litem for the child;
    •  Homemaker;
    • Home health aide;
    • Medical or social service worker;
    •  Psychologist;
    • Child care personnel;
    • Mental health professional;
    • Law enforcement official;
    • State or municipal fire inspector;
    • Municipal code enforcement official;
    • Commercial film and photographic print processor;
    • Member of the clergy acquiring the information as a result of clerical professional work (except for information learned through confidential communications);
    • Chair of a professional licensing board that has jurisdiction over mandatory reporters;
    • Humane agent employed by the Department of Agriculture, Conservation, and Forestry;
    • Sexual assault counselors;
    • School bus driver or school bus attendant; and
    • Family or domestic violence victim advocates.
  • Any person who has assumed full, intermittent, or occasional responsibility for the care and custody of the child, regardless of whether that person is compensated.
  • Any person affiliated with a church or religious institution who serves in an administrative capacity or has otherwise assumed a position of trust or responsibility to members of that church or religious institution, while acting in that capacity, regardless of whether that person is compensated.
  • Must make oral report by telephone of suspected abuse or neglect immediately. If requested by the Department of Health and Human Services, must follow with a written report within 48 hours.
  • Hospital, medical personnel and law enforcement personnel may submit emergency reports through password-protected e-mail. A faxed report may be accepted when preceded by a telephone call to the department.

22 M.R.S.A. §§ 1-A, 4002, 4009, 4010, 4011-A, 4011-B, 4012, 4014, 4015, 4016, 4017.

Maryland^
  • Health practitioner, police officer, educator, or human service worker, acting in a professional capacity in this State.
  • Any person.
    • Persons who are not health practitioners, police officers, educators, or human service workers are not required to report suspected abuse or neglect if doing so would violate the attorney-client privilege, if the report would require disclosure of “matter communicated in confidence by a client to the client’s attorney or other information relating to the representation of the client,” or if doing so would violate any constitutional right to assistance of counsel.
    • The communication was made to the minister, clergyman, or priest in a professional character in the course of discipline enjoined by the church to which the minister, clergyman, or priest belongs; and the minister, clergyman, or priest is bound to maintain the confidentiality of that communication under canon law, church doctrine, or practice.
  • For health practitioners, police officers, educators, and human service workers acting in a professional capacity:
    • The oral report must be made by telephone or direct communication as soon as possible; and
    • The written report must be made not later than 48 hours after the contact, examination, attention, or treatment that caused the individual to believe that the child had been subjected to abuse or neglect.
  • For all other persons, there are no such requirements specified, and the report may be oral or in writing to the agencies identified above.

Md. Code Ann., Fam. Law §§ 5-701, 5-704, 5-704.1, 5-705, 5-705.1, 5-708; Md. Code Ann., Courts and Judicial Proceedings §§ 5-620, 9-108, 9-111.

Massachusetts^
  • Any of the following:
    • Physicians; medical interns; hospital personnel engaged in the examination, care or treatment of persons; medical examiners; psychologists; emergency medical technicians; dentists; nurses; chiropractors; podiatrists; optometrists; osteopaths;
    • Allied mental health and human services professionals licensed under Mass. Gen. Laws chapter 112, section 165 (marriage and family therapists, rehabilitation counselors, mental health counselors, educational psychologists and applied behavior analysts);
    • Drug and alcoholism counselors; psychiatrists; clinical social workers;
    • Public or private schoolteachers; educational administrators; guidance or family counselors; school attendance officers;
    • Child care workers; persons paid to care for, or work with, a child in any public or private facility, or home or program funded by Massachusetts or licensed by the Department of Early Education and Care that provides child care or residential services to children or that provides the services of child care resource and referral agencies, voucher management agencies, family child care systems or child care food programs; licensors of the Department of Early Education and Care;
    • Social workers; foster parents; probation officers; clerk-magistrates of a district court; parole officers;
    • Firefighters; police officers;
    • Priests; rabbis; clergy members; ordained or licensed ministers; leaders of any church or religious body; accredited Christian Science practitioners; persons performing official duties on behalf of a church or religious body that are recognized as the duties of any of these types of individuals (e.g., priests, rabbis, etc.); persons employed by a church or religious body to supervise, educate, coach, train or counsel a child on a regular basis;
    • Persons in charge of a medical or other public or private institution, school or facility or any such person’s designated agent; and
    • The Child Advocate appointed by the Governor of Massachusetts.
  • Must report orally immediately followed within 48 hours by a written report submitted to the DCF.
  • If hospital personnel collect physical evidence of child abuse or neglect, the local district attorney and local law enforcement (in addition to DCF) should be notified immediately.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 119, §§ 21, 51A.

Michigan^
  • Physician, dentist, physician’s assistant, registered dental hygienist, medical examiner, nurse, licensed emergency medical care provider;
  • Audiologist, psychologist, marriage and family therapist, licensed professional counselor, social worker, licensed master’s social worker, licensed bachelor’s social worker;
  • Registered social service technician, social service technician;
  • Person employed in a professional capacity in any office of the friend of the court;
  • School administrator, school counselor, teacher;
  • Law enforcement officer;
  • Member of the clergy;
  • Child care provider who is regulated by the state of Michigan;
  • Any employee of an organization or entity that, as a result of federal funding statutes, regulations, or contracts, would otherwise be prohibited from reporting in the absence of a state mandate or court order; and
  • The following staff members of the Michigan Department of Human Services:
    • eligibility specialist;
    • family independence manager;
    • family independence specialist;
    • social services specialist;
    • social work specialist;
    • social work specialist manager; and
    • welfare services specialist.
  • Reporters must make an oral report immediately followed within 72 hours by a written report.

Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 722.622, 722.623, 722.623a, 722.631, 722.633.

Minnesota^
  • A professional or professional’s delegate who is engaged in the practice of the healing arts, social services, hospital administration, psychological or psychiatric treatment, child care, education, correctional supervision, probation and correctional services, or law enforcement; or
  • A member of the clergy who received the information while engaged in ministerial duties, provided that a member of the clergy is not required to report information that is otherwise privileged (from, for example, a confession).
  • An oral report (by telephone or otherwise) must be made immediately (as soon as possible but in no event longer than 24 hours).
  • Within 72 hours of making an oral report (exclusive of weekends and holidays), the reporter must send a written report to the appropriate police department, the county sheriff, the agency responsible for assessing or investigating the report, or the local welfare agency.

Minn. St. §§ 626.556, 626.5561.

Mississippi^
  • Any person, including but not limited to any:
    • attorney;
    • physician;
    • dentist;
    • intern;
    • resident;
    • nurse;
    • psychologist;
    • social worker;
    • family protection worker;
    • family protection specialist;
    • child caregiver;
    • minister;
    • law enforcement officer;
    • public or private school employee; or
    • any other person.
  • Must make the oral report immediately by telephone or otherwise, followed as soon as possible by a written report to the Mississippi Department of Human Services.

Miss. Code Ann. §§ 43-21-105, 43-21-353.

Missouri^
  • Physician, medical examiner, coroner, dentist, chiropractor, optometrist, podiatrist, resident, intern, nurse, hospital or clinic personnel that are engaged in the examination, care, treatment or research of persons and any other health practitioner;
  • psychologist;
  • mental health professional;
  • social worker;
  • daycare center worker or other child-care worker;
  • juvenile officer, probation or parole officer;
  • jail or detention center personnel;
  • peace officer or law enforcement official;
  • teacher, principal, or other school official;
  • any person while practicing as a minister of the gospel, clergyperson, priest, rabbi, Christian Science practitioner, or other person serving in a similar capacity for any religious organization who is responsible for or who has supervisory authority over one who is responsible for the care, custody, and control of a child or has access to a child; and
  • any other person with responsibility for the care of children.
  • Reporter must make an oral report immediately, by telephone or otherwise. Evidence of sexual abuse or sexual molestation of any child must be turned over to the Missouri Children’s Division within 24 hours by those mandated to report.

Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 210.110, 210.115, 210.130, 210.140, 210.165, 352.400.

Montana^
  • Any of the following persons as a result of information they receive in their professional or official capacity:
    • A physician, resident, intern, or member of a hospital’s staff engaged in the admission, examination, care, or treatment of persons (“category 1” for purposes of the discussion below in “Anything else I should know?”);
    • A nurse, osteopath, chiropractor, podiatrist, medical examiner, coroner, dentist, optometrist, or any other health or mental health professional (“category 2” for purposes of the discussion below in “Anything else I should know?”);
    • Religious healers;
    • School teachers, other school officials, and employees who work during regular school hours;
    • A social worker, operator or employee of any registered or licensed day-care or substitute care facility, staff of a resource and referral grant program organized under Montana state law or of a child and adult food care program, or an operator or employee of a child-care facility;
    • A foster care, residential, or institutional worker;
    • A peace officer or other law enforcement official;
    • A member of the clergy;
    • A guardian ad litem or a court-appointed advocate who is authorized to investigate a report of alleged abuse or neglect; and
    • An employee of an entity that contracts with the department of public health and human services to provide direct services to children.
  • Reports to be made promptly. No written report is required.

Mont. Code Ann. §§ 41-3-102, 41-3-201, 41-3-206, 41-3-207.

Nebraska^
  • Any person.
  • Timing is not specified. Telephone report must be followed by a written report.

Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 28-359, 28-710, 28-711, 28-717, 28-720

Nevada^
  • Any of the following when acting in his or her professional or occupational capacity:
    • A physician, dentist, dental hygienist, chiropractor, optometrist, dispensing optician, podiatrist, homeopathic physician, osteopath, medical examiner, resident, intern, perfusionist, professional or practical nurse, licensed physician assistant, audiologist, speech-language pathologist, physical or occupational therapist, pharmacist, psychiatrist, psychologist, marriage and family therapist, clinical professional counselor, clinical alcohol and drug abuse counselor, alcohol and drug abuse counselor, clinical social worker, music therapist, athletic trainer, driver of an ambulance, advanced emergency medical technician, paramedic, licensed dietician, a doctor of oriental medicine in any form, or other person providing medical services licensed or certified in the State of Nevada;
    • Any personnel of a hospital or similar institution engaged in the admission, examination, care or treatment of persons or an administrator, manager or other person in charge of a hospital or similar institution upon notification of suspected abuse or neglect of a child by a member of the staff of the hospital;
    • A coroner;
    • A clergyman, practitioner of Christian Science or religious healer, unless he has acquired the knowledge of the abuse or neglect from the offender during a confession;
    • A social worker or an administrator, teacher, librarian or counselor of a school;
    • Any person who maintains or is employed by a facility or establishment that provides care for children, children’s camp or other public or private facility, institution or agency furnishing care to a child;
    • Any person licensed to conduct a foster home;
    • Any officer or employee of a law enforcement agency or an adult or juvenile probation officer;
    • An attorney, unless he or she has acquired the knowledge of the abuse or neglect from a client who is or may be accused of the abuse or neglect;
    • Any person who maintains, is employed by or serves as a volunteer for an agency or service which advises persons regarding abuse or neglect of a child and refers them to persons or agencies where their requests and needs can be met;
    • Any person who is employed by or serves as a volunteer for an approved youth shelter; and
    • Any adult person who is employed by an entity that provides organized activities for children.
  • As soon as reasonably practicable but not later than 24 hours after the reporter knows or has reasonable cause to believe that the child has been abused or neglected. Reports are to be made by telephone or (given all the facts and circumstances known or which reasonably should be known) other means of oral, written, or electronic communications that would be reliable and swift under the circumstances.

Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 432B.020, 432B.040, 432B.121, 432B.220, 432B.230, 432B.240.

New Hampshire^
  • Any physician, surgeon, county medical examiner, psychiatrist, resident, intern, dentist, osteopath, optometrist, chiropractor, psychologist, therapist, registered nurse, hospital personnel (engaged in admission, examination, care and treatment of persons), Christian Science practitioner, teacher, school official, school nurse, school counselor, social worker, day care worker, any other child or foster care worker, law enforcement official, priest, minister, or rabbi or any other person having reason to suspect that a child has been abused or neglected.
  • Must report orally immediately by telephone or otherwise, followed within 48 hours by a written report, if requested by the NH DHHS.
  • Do not send e-mail reports of abuse.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 169-C:3, 169-C:29, 169-C:30, 169-C:37.

New Jersey^
  • Any person having reasonable cause to believe that a child has been subjected to child abuse or acts of child abuse.
  • Reports must be made immediately by telephone or otherwise.

N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 9:6-8.9, 9:6-8.10, 9:6-8.14, 2C:43-3.1.a(2)(a)

New Mexico^
  • The statute provides that every person (including licensed physicians, residents or interns examining, attending or treating a child, law enforcement officers, judges presiding during a proceeding, registered nurses, visiting nurses, schoolteachers, school officials, social workers acting in an official capacity, and members of the clergy, who has information that is not privileged as a matter of law) is a mandatory reporter.
  • Reports must be made immediately. 
  • The department shall immediately transmit the facts of the report and the name, address and phone number of the reporter by telephone to a local law enforcement agency and shall transmit the same information in writing within 48 hours.

N.M. Stat. § 30-6-2, 30-6-4, 32A-1-4, 32A-4-2, 32A-4-3.

New York^
  • Any of the following, when acting in their professional or official capacities:
    • Physicians;
    • Registered physician assistants;
    • Surgeons;
    • Medical examiners;
    • Coroners;
    • Dentists;
    • Dental hygienists;
    • Osteopaths;
    • Optometrists;
    • Chiropractors;
    • Podiatrists;
    • Residents;
    • Interns;
    • Psychologists;
    • Registered nurses;
    • Social workers;
    • Emergency medical technicians;
    • Licensed creative arts therapists;
    • Licensed marriage and family therapists;
    • Licensed mental health counselors;
    • Licensed psychoanalysts;
    • Licensed Behavior Analysts;
    • Certified Behavior Analyst Assistants;
    • Hospital personnel engaged in the admission, examination, care, or treatment of persons;
    • Christian Science practitioners;
    • School officials (which includes but is not limited to school teacher, school guidance counselor, school psychologist, school social worker, school nurse, school administrator, other school personnel required to hold a teaching or administrative license or certificate, or full or part-time compensated school employee required to hold a temporary coaching license or professional coaching certificate);
    • Social services workers;
    • Directors of a children’s overnight camp, summer day camp or traveling summer day camp;
    • Day care center workers;
    • School-age child care workers;
    • Providers of family or group family day care;
    • Employees or volunteers in a residential care facility for children that is licensed, certified or operated by the office of children and family services;
    • Child care or foster care workers;
    • Mental health professionals;
    • Workers of the local protective service;
    • Substance abuse counselors;
    • Alcoholism counselors;
    • All persons credentialed by the NYS Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services;
    • Peace officers;
    • Police officers;
    • District attorneys or assistant district attorneys;
    • Investigators employed in the office of the district attorney; and
    • Any other law enforcement official.
  • Initial reports must be made immediately by telephone or facsimile using a form supplied by the Office of Children and Family Services (available at: http://ocfs.ny.gov/main/cps/). A written report must follow the initial report within 48 hours.

N.Y. Soc. Serv. Law §§ 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 418, 419, 420; N.Y. Family Court Act § 1012.

North Carolina^
  • Any person or institution.
  • Reports may be made orally, by telephone, or in writing. If the report is made orally or by telephone, the reporter must give his or her name, address, and telephone number, although refusal of reporter to give a name shall not preclude the department’s assessment of the alleged abuse, neglect, dependency, or death as a result of maltreatment.

N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 7B-101, 7B-301, 7B-302, 7B-309, 7B-310, 90-21.20.

North Dakota^
  • Physician;
  • Nurse;
  • Dentist,
  • Dental hygienist;
  • Optometrist;
  • Medical examiner or Coroner;
  • Any other medical or mental health professional;
  • Religious practitioner of the healing arts;
  • Schoolteacher;
  • School administrator;
  • School counselor;
  • Addiction counselor;
  • Social worker;
  • Child care worker;
  • Foster parent;
  • Police or law enforcement officer;
  • Juvenile court personnel;
  • Probation officer;
  • Division of juvenile services employee; or
  • Member of the clergy (except if knowledge or suspicion is derived from information received in capacity of a spiritual advisor).
  • A chiropractor having knowledge of or reasonable cause to suspect that there is child abuse or neglect is mandated to report the circumstances to the department of human services if the knowledge or suspicion is derived from information received by the chiropractor in the chiropractor’s professional capacity (N.D. Admin. Code 17-02-03-04).
  • A person who has knowledge of or reasonable cause to suspect that a child is abused or neglected, based on images of sexual conduct by a child discovered on a workplace computer.
  • Must be reported immediately. Reports may be oral or written, though oral reports must be followed by written reports within 48 hours if so requested by the Department of Human Services, and such requested written reports must include information specifically sought by the Department if the reporter possesses or has reasonable access to such information. A written report form is accessible at: http://www.nd.gov/eforms/Doc/sfn00960.pdf

N.D. Cent. Code §§ 27-20-02, 50-25.1-02, 50-25.1-03, 50-25.1-03.1, 50-25.1-04, 50-25.1-09, 50-25.1-13, 50.25.1-16; N.D. Admin. Code 17-02-03-04.

Ohio^
  • Any of the following, if acting in a professional or official capacity:
    • attorney;
    • physician (including a hospital intern or resident);
    • dentist;
    • podiatrist;
    • practitioner of a limited branch of medicine;
    • registered nurse, licensed practical nurse or visiting nurse;
    • other health care professional;
    • licensed psychologist;
    • licensed school psychologist;
    • independent marriage and family therapist or marriage and family therapist;
    • speech pathologist or audiologist;
    • coroner;
    • administrator or employee of a child day-care center;
    • administrator or employee of a residential camp, child day camp or private, nonprofit therapeutic wilderness camp;
    • administrator or employee of a certified child care agency or other public or private children services agency;
    • school teacher;
    • school employee;
    • school authority;
    • person engaged in social work or the practice of professional counseling;
    • agent of a county humane society;
    • person, other than a cleric, rendering spiritual treatment through prayer in accordance with the tenets of a well-recognized religion;
    • employee of a county department of job and family services who is a professional and who works with children and families;
    • superintendent or regional administrator employed by the department of youth services;
    • superintendent, board member, or employee of a county board of developmental disabilities;
    • investigative agent contracted with by a county board of developmental disabilities;
    • employee of the department of developmental disabilities;
    • employee of a facility or home that provides respite care;
    • employee of a home health agency;
    • employee of an entity that provides homemaker services;
    • a person performing the duties of an assessor;
    • any third party employed by a public children services agency to assist in providing child or family related services;
    • court appointed special advocate; or
    • guardian ad litem.
  • Report must be made immediately by telephone or in person and must be followed by a written report if requested by the receiving agency or officer.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. 14 R.C. §§ 2151.03, 2151.011, 2151.031, 2151.421, 5120.173, 2151.99.

Oklahoma^
  • Any person.
  • Every physician, surgeon, or other health care professional including doctors of medicine, licensed osteopathic physicians, residents and interns, or any other health care professional attending the birth of a child who tests positive for alcohol or a controlled dangerous substance shall promptly report the matter to the Department of Human Services.
  • Reports must be made “promptly.”

10A Okla. Stat. Ann. §§ 1-1-105, 1-2-101, 1-2-104.

Oregon^
  • Any “public or private official,” which means:
    • Physician or physician assistant licensed under ORS chapter 677 or naturopathic physician, including any intern or resident;
    • Dentist;
    • School employee, including an employee of a higher education institution;
    • Licensed practical nurse or registered nurse;
    • Nurse practitioner;
    • Nurse’s aide;
    • Home health aide or employee of an in-home health service;
    • Employee of the Department of Human Services, Oregon Health Authority, Early Learning Division, Youth Development Division, Office of Child Care, the Oregon Youth Authority, a county health department, a community mental health program, a community developmental disabilities program, a county juvenile department, a licensed child-caring agency or an alcohol and drug treatment program;
    • Peace officer;
    • Psychologist;
    • Member of the clergy;
    • Regulated social worker;
    • Optometrist;
    • Chiropractor;
    • Certified provider of foster care (or an employee thereof);
    • Attorney;
    • Licensed professional counselor;
    • Licensed marriage and family therapist;
    • Firefighter or emergency medical technician;
    • Court-appointed special advocate;
    • Registered or certified child care provider;
    • Member of the Legislative Assembly;
    • Physical, speech or occupational therapist;
    • Audiologist;
    • Speech-language pathologist;
    • Employee of the Teacher Standards and Practices Commission directly involved in investigations or discipline by the commission;
    • Pharmacist;
    • Operator of a preschool recorded program;
    • Operator of a school-age recorded program;
    • Employee of a private agency or organization facilitating the provision of respite services for parents pursuant to a properly executed power of attorney;
    • A coach, assistant coach or trainer of an amateur, semiprofessional or professional athlete, if compensated and if the athlete is a child;
    • Personal support worker;
    • Home care worker; and
    • Employee of a public or private organization providing child-related services or activities which include but are not limited to youth groups or centers, scout groups or camps, summer or day camps, survival camps or groups, centers or camps that are operated under the guidance, supervision or auspices of religious, public or private educational systems or community service organizations.
  • Specifically excluded are employees of community-based, nonprofit organizations whose primary purpose is to provide confidential, direct services to victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking or human trafficking.
  • Certain exceptions to the obligation of mandatory reporters to report are set forth under “Anything else I should know?” below.
  • Reports must be made immediately. Reports should be oral and can be made by telephone or otherwise.

Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 419B.005, 419B.010, 419B.015, 419B.025.

Pennsylvania^
  • The following adults:
    • 1) A person licensed or certified to practice in any health-related field under the jurisdiction of the Department of State;
    • 2) A medical examiner, coroner or funeral director;
    • 3) An employee of a health care facility or provider licensed by the Department of Health, who is engaged in the admission, examination, care or treatment of individuals;
    • 4) A school employee;
    • 5) An employee of a child-care service who has direct contact with children in the course of employment;
    • 6) A clergyman, priest, rabbi, minister, Christian Science practitioner, religious healer or spiritual leader of any regularly established church or other religious organization;
    • 7) An individual paid or unpaid, who, on the basis of the individual’s role as an integral part of a regularly scheduled program, activity or service, is a person responsible for the child’s welfare or has direct contact with children;
    • 8) An employee of a social services agency who has direct contact with children in the course of employment;
    • 9) A peace officer or law enforcement official;
    • 10) An emergency medical services provider certified by the Department of Health;
    • 11) An employee of a public library who has direct contact with children in the course of employment;
    • 12) An individual supervised or managed by a person listed under items 1-11 and 13 of this section, who has direct contact with children in the course of employment;
    • 13) An independent contractor;
    • 14) An attorney affiliated with an agency, institution, organization or other entity, including a school or regularly established religious organization that is responsible for the care, supervision, guidance or control of children;
    • 15) A foster parent;
    • 16) An adult family member who is a person responsible for the child’s welfare and provides services to a child in a family living home, community home for individuals with an intellectual disability or host home or children who are subject to supervision or licensure by the department under Articles IX and X of the act of June 13, 1967 (P.L. 31, No. 21), known as the Public Welfare Code.
  • Reports must be made immediately by telephone or written report using electronic technologies. If the initial report is oral, it must be followed by a written report (which can be made electronically) within 48 hours of the oral report.

Child Protective Services Law, 23 Pa. C.S.A. §§ 6303, 6304, 6305, 6311, 6312, 6313, 6317, 6318, 6319, 6386.

Puerto Rico^

Any person, including:

  • Professionals or public officials, public, private, and privatized entities which, in their professional capacity and in the performance of their duties, may learn of or come to suspect that a minor is, has been, or is at risk of becoming a victim of abuse, institutional abuse, neglect, and/or institutional neglect;
  • professionals in the fields of health, the system of justice, education, social work, public order, persons who administer or work in caregiving institutions or centers that provide care services for twenty-four (24) hours a day or part thereof, or in rehabilitation institutions and centers for minors, or in foster homes; and
  • processors of film or photographs who have knowledge of or observe, in the performance of their professional responsibilities or employment, any motion picture, photograph, videotape, negative, or slide that depicts a minor involved in a sexual activity.
  • Reports must be made immediately.
  • Mandatory reporters shall subsequently fill out a form provided by the Department, which shall be sent to the central registry, within forty-eight (48) hours of having notified or referred the situation.

8 L.P.R.A. § 444; § 446; § 450a.

Rhode Island^
  • Any person.
  • Reports of abuse, neglect, or sexual abuse by another child must be made within 24 hours.
  • Reports of abuse or neglect resulting in death must be made immediately.
  • Oral reports required to be made by a physician or registered nurse practitioner, as described above, must be made immediately and followed by a report in writing to the department and law enforcement agency explaining the extent and nature of the abuse or neglect the child is alleged to have suffered.

R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 40-11-2, 40-11-3, 40-11-3.1, 40-11-3.2, 40-11-4, 40-11-6, 40-11-6.1.

South Carolina^
  • The following when acting in their professional capacity:
    • Physician;
    • Nurse;
    • Dentist;
    • Optometrist;
    • Medical examiner;
    • Coroner;
    • Employee of a county medical examiner’s or coroner’s office;
    • Any other medical, emergency medical services, mental health, or allied health professional;
    • Member of the clergy (including a Christian Science Practitioner or religious healer);
    • School teacher;
    • Counselor;
    • Principal;
    • Assistant principal;
    • School attendance officer;
    • Social or public assistance worker;
    • Substance abuse treatment staff;
    • Childcare worker in a childcare center or foster care facility;
    • Foster parent;
    • Police or law enforcement officer;
    • Juvenile justice worker;
    • Undertaker;
    • Funeral home director or employee of a funeral home;
    • Persons responsible for processing films;
    • Computer technician;
    • Judge; and
    • Volunteer non-attorney guardian ad litem serving on behalf of the South Carolina Guardian Ad Litem Program or on behalf of Richland County CASA.
  • Any other person who has reason to believe that a child’s physical or mental health or welfare has been or may be adversely affected by abuse and neglect may, and is encouraged to, report.
  • Timing is not specified in statute.
  • Reports must be made orally by telephone or otherwise to the county department of social services or to a law enforcement agency in the county where the child resides or is found.

S.C. Code Ann. §§ 63-7-20, 63-7-310, 63-7-360, 63-7-390, 63-7-410.

South Dakota^
  • Any physician;
  • Dentist;
  • Doctor of osteopathy;
  • Chiropractor;
  • Optometrist;
  • Emergency medical technician;
  • Paramedic;
  • Mental health professional or counselor;
  • Podiatrist;
  • Psychologist;
  • Religious healing practitioner;
  • Social worker;
  • Hospital intern or resident;
  • Parole or court services officer;
  • Law enforcement officer;
  • Teacher;
  • School counselor;
  • School official;
  • Nurse;
  • Licensed or registered child welfare provider;
  • Employee or volunteer of a domestic abuse shelter;
  • Employee or volunteer of a child advocacy organization or child welfare service provider;
  • Chemical dependency counselor;
  • Coroner; and
  • Any “safety sensitive position” (which means any law enforcement officer authorized to carry firearms and any custody staff employed by any agency responsible for the rehabilitation or treatment of any adjudicated adult or juvenile).
  • Reports must be made immediately. Reports must be made orally by telephone or otherwise. 

S.D.C.L. §§ 3-6C-1, 22-6-2, 26-8A-2, 26-8A-3, 26-8A-4, 26-8A-5, 26-8A-6, 26-8A-7, 26-8A-8, 26-8A-10, 26-8A-14.

Tennessee^
  • General Note: Tennessee’s mandatory reporting law imposes different reporting requirements depending on the type of abuse. Accordingly, the information presented distinguishes between reporting requirements for crimes of “abuse” and crimes of “sexual abuse” (as respectively defined).
  • Abuse:
    • Any person who has knowledge of or is called upon to render aid to any child who is suffering from, or has sustained, any wound, injury, disability or physical or mental condition.
  • Sexual Abuse: Any person, including, but not limited to, any:
    • Physician, osteopathic physician, medical examiner, chiropractor, nurse or hospital personnel engaged in the admission, examination, care or treatment of persons;
    • Any other health or mental health professional;
    • Practitioner who relies solely on spiritual means for healing;
    • School teacher or other school official or personnel;
    • Judge of any court of the state;
    • Social worker, day care center worker, or other professional child care, foster care, residential or institutional worker;
    • Law enforcement officer;
    • Authority figure at a community facility, including any facility used for recreation or social assemblies for educational, religious, social, health or welfare purposes, including, but not limited to, facilities operated at schools, the boy or girl scouts, the YMCA or YWCA, the boys and girls club or church or religious organizations; or
    • Neighbor, relative, friend or any other person.
  • Reports must be made immediately. Reports may be made via telephone or otherwise, on the Department of Children’s Services Central Intake Division hotline at 1-877-237-0004 (1-877-54ABUSE) or online (at: https://apps.tn.gov/carat/referral/emergency.html).

T.C.A. §§ 37-1-401, 37-1-403, 37-1-410, 37-1-412, 37-1-413, 37-1-602, 37-1-605, 40-35-111.

Texas^
  • Any person or “Professional” (as defined below).
  • Reports must be made immediately. Professionals must report the suspected abuse no later than 48 hours after first suspecting the abuse or neglect.

Tex. Fam. Code §§ 101.003, 261.001, 261.101, 261.102, 261.103, 261.104, 261.106, 261.107, 261.109, 261.110; Tex. Health and Safety Code § 248A.001, 260A ; Tex. Penal Code §§ 12.21.

Utah^
  • Any person.
  • Telephone report to be made immediately, followed by a written report within 48 hours if requested by the Division of Child and Family Services.

UT ST §§ 53A-6-502, 62A-4a-101, 62A-4a-403, 62A-4a-405, 62A-4a-408, 62A-4a-410, 62A-4a-411, 76-3-201, 76-3-204, 76-3-301, 78A-6-105.

Vermont^

A mandated reporter is any:

  • health care provider, including any:
    • Physician, surgeon, osteopath, chiropractor or physician’s assistant licensed, certified or registered under Vermont state law;
    • Resident physician;
    • Intern;
    • Hospital administrator in any hospital in Vermont;
    • Registered nurse or licensed practical nurse;
    • Medical examiner;
    • Emergency medical professional;
    • Dentist;
    • Psychologist; and
    • Pharmacist;
  • Any individual who is employed by a school district or an approved or recognized independent school, or who is contracted and paid by a school district or an approved or recognized independent school to provide student services, including any school superintendent, school teacher, student teacher, school librarian, school principal, headmaster and school guidance counselor;
  • Child care worker;
  • Mental health professional;
  • Social worker;
  • Probation officer;
  • Police officer;
  • Any employee, contractor or grantee of the Agency of Human Services who has contact with clients;
  • Camp owner, camp administrator or camp counselor (“camp” includes any residential or nonresidential recreational program); and
  • Member of the clergy (i.e., a priest, rabbi, clergy member, ordained or licensed minister, leader of any church or religious body, accredited Christian Science practitioner, or person performing official duties on behalf of a church or religious body that are recognized as the duties of a priest, rabbi, clergy, nun, brother, ordained or licensed minister, leader of any church or religious body, or accredited Christian Science practitioner), subject to certain carveouts specified under “Anything Else I Should Know?”
  • Reports to be made within 24 hours of the time information regarding the suspected abuse or neglect was first received or observed. Report may be made orally or in writing. If the report is made orally, a follow-up written report will be requested, unless the reporter is anonymous.

33 V.S.A. §§ 4912, 4913, 4914.

Virgin Islands^
  • Any physician;
  • Hospital personnel engaged in the admission, examination, care or treatment of persons;
  • Nurse;
  • Dentist;
  • Any other medical professional;
  • Any mental health professional;
  • School teacher or other school personnel;
  • Social service worker;
  • Day-care worker or other child-care or foster-care worker; or
  • Any peace officer or law enforcement official.
  • Reports shall be made immediately by telephone or otherwise.  If requested, an oral report shall be followed by a written report within 48 hours.
  • Whenever any person is required to report in his capacity as a member of the staff of a medical or other public or private institution, school, facility or agency, he shall immediately notify the person in charge of such institution, who shall then also become responsible to report or cause reports to be made.  Only one report is required from any such institution, school or agency; but individuals may report on their own behalf.
  • Any other person may make a report if such person has reasonable cause to suspect that a child has been abused or neglected or observes the child has been abused or neglected or observes the child being subjected to conditions or circumstances that would reasonably result in abuse or neglect.

5 V.I.C. §§ 2502, 2533, 2534, 2535, 2537, 2539.

Virginia^
  • Any person licensed to practice medicine or any of the healing arts;
  • Any hospital resident or intern, and any person employed in the nursing profession;
  • Any person employed as a social worker or family-services specialist;
  • Any probation officer;
  • Any teacher or other person employed in a public or private school, kindergarten or nursery school;
  • Any person providing full-time or part-time child care for pay on a regularly planned basis;
  • Any mental health professional;
  • Any law-enforcement officer or animal control officer;
  • Any mediator eligible to receive court referrals;
  • Any professional staff person, not previously enumerated, employed by a private or state-operated hospital, institution or facility to which children have been committed or where children have been placed for care and treatment;
  • Any person 18 years of age or older associated with or employed by any public or private organization responsible for the care, custody or control of children;
  • Any person who is designated a court-appointed special advocate;
  • Any person 18 years of age or older who has received training approved by the Department of Social Services for the purposes of recognizing and reporting child abuse and neglect;
  • Any person employed by a local department who determines eligibility for public assistance;
  • Any emergency medical services provider certified by the Board of Health, unless such provider immediately reports the matter directly to the attending physician at the hospital to which the child is transported, who shall make such report forthwith;
  • Any athletic coach, director or other person 18 years of age or older employed by or volunteering with a private sports organization or team;
  • Administrators or employees 18 years of age or older of public or private day camps, youth centers and youth recreation programs;
  • Any person employed by a public or private institution of higher education other than an attorney who is employed by a public or private institution of higher education as it relates to information gained in the course of providing legal representation to a client; and
  • Volunteer and professional Boy Scout leaders (Op. Atty. Gen., Opinion No. 02-053, June 27, 2002).

Advocates in domestic violence shelters and sexual assault crisis centers generally are not statutorily mandated to report child abuse and neglect, but he or she would be required to report suspected child abuse or neglect to the extent that the advocate performs activities that would place the advocate under any of the above categories (Op. Atty. Gen., Opinion No. 09-097, Jan. 5, 2010).

  • Reports must be made immediately.

Va. Code Ann. §§ 63.2-100, 63.2-1508 -1512; Op. Atty. Gen., Opinion No. 09-097 (Jan. 5, 2010); Op. Atty. Gen., Opinion No. 02-053 (June 27, 2002).

Washington^
  • Any medical practitioner;
  • Dentist;
  • County coroner or medical examiner;
  • Law enforcement officer;
  • Professional school personnel;
  • Registered or licensed nurse;
  • Social service counselor;
  • Psychologist;
  • Pharmacist;
  • Licensed or certified child care providers and their employees
  • Employee of the Washington Department of Social and Health Services or Department of Early Learning;
  • Juvenile probation officer;
  • Placement and liaison specialist;
  • Responsible living skills program staff;
  • HOPE center staff;
  • State family and children’s ombuds or any volunteer in the ombuds’ office or host home program;
  • Any person, in his or her official supervisory capacity with a nonprofit or for-profit organization, who has reasonable cause to believe that a child has suffered abuse or neglect caused by a person over whom he or she regularly exercises supervisory authority, provided that the person alleged to have caused the abuse or neglect is employed by, contracted by, or volunteers with the organization and coaches, trains, educates, or counsels a child or children or regularly has unsupervised access to a child or children as part of the employment, contract, or voluntary service. (Note: No one shall be required to report under this section when he or she obtains the information solely as a result of a privileged communication);
  • Department of corrections personnel who, in the course of their employment, observe offenders or the children with whom the offenders are in contact;
  • Any adult who has reasonable cause to believe that a child who resides with them has suffered severe abuse, and is able or capable of making a report;
  • Guardians ad litem, including court-appointed special advocates, who in the course of their representation of children in these actions have reasonable cause to believe a child has been abused or neglected; and
  • Administrative and academic or athletic department employees, including student employees, of institutions of higher education and of private institutions of higher education.
  • Oral report must be made immediately by telephone or otherwise, at the first opportunity, but in no case longer than 48 hours after there is reasonable cause to believe that the child has suffered abuse or neglect.
  • Upon request, the oral report must be followed by a written report.
  • The reporting requirement does not apply to the discovery of abuse or neglect that occurred during childhood if it is discovered after the child has become an adult. However, if there is reasonable cause to believe other children are or may be at risk of abuse or neglect by the accused, the reporting requirement does apply.

Wash. Rev. Code §§ 5.60.060, 26.44.020, 26.44.030, 26.44.040, 26.44.060, 9A.20.021, 26.44.080.

West Virginia^
  • General note: West Virginia’s mandatory reporting law has different requirements depending on the type of abuse. Information is categorized on this page accordingly.
  • Abuse or neglect:
    • Any medical, dental or mental health professional;
    • Christian Science practitioner or religious healer;
    • School teacher or other school personnel;
    • Social service worker;
    • Child care or foster care worker;
    • Emergency medical services personnel;
    • Peace officer or law-enforcement official or humane officer
    • Member of the clergy;
    • Circuit court judge, family court judge, employee of the Division of Juvenile Services or magistrate;
    • Youth camp administrator or counselor;
    • Employee, coach or volunteer of an entity that provides organized children’s activities; and
    • Commercial film or photographic print processor.
  • Sexual abuse/sexual assault:
    • Any person over the age of 18 who receives a disclosure from a credible witness or observes any sexual abuse/assault of a child.
  • Reports of child abuse or neglect must be made immediately by phone and followed up within 48 hours by a written report if requested.
  • Reports must be made immediately, and not more than 48 hours after receiving such a disclosure or observing the sexual abuse or sexual assault.
  • If the individual receiving the disclosure or observing the sexual abuse or sexual assault has a good faith belief that reporting the event to the police would expose either the reporter, the subject child, the reporter’s children or other children in the subject child’s household to an increased threat of serious bodily injury, the individual may delay making the report while he or she undertakes measures to remove themselves or the affected children from the perceived threat of additional harm and the individual makes the report as soon as practicable after the threat of harm has been reduced.

W. Va. Code §§ 49-1-201; 49-1-202; 49-2-803; 49-2-807; 49-2-809–49-2-812; 61-8b-1; 61-86-1. W. Va. R. of Prac. and Proc. for Family Court 48.

Wisconsin^
  • Any of the following persons who has a reasonable cause to suspect that a child seen by the person in the course of professional duties has been abused or neglected or who has reason to believe that a child seen by the person in the course of professional duties has been threatened with abuse or neglect and that abuse or neglect of the child will occur shall report (unless an exception described below applies):
    • Physician, coroner, medical examiner, nurse, dentist, chiropractor, optometrist, acupuncturist, physical therapist, physical therapist assistant, occupational therapist, dietician, speech-language pathologist, audiologist, emergency medical technician or other medical or mental health professional;
    • Social worker, marriage and family therapist, professional counselor, alcohol or other drug abuse counselor;
    • Public assistance worker, including a financial and employment planner;
    • School teacher, school administrator, school counselor, any other school employee;
    • Child-care worker in a child care center, group home, or residential care center for children and youth or child care provider;
    • Member of the treatment staff employed by or working under contract with a county department or a residential treatment care center for children/youth;
    • Court appointed special advocate;
    • Mediator under s. 767.405; and
    • First responder, police or law enforcement officer.
    • Members of Clergy: Absent an applicable exception (as described below), a member of the clergy shall report if the member of the clergy (i) has reasonable cause to suspect that a child seen by the member of the clergy in the course of his or her professional duties has been abused or has been threatened with abuse and abuse of the child will likely occur; or (ii) has reasonable cause, based on observations made or information that he or she receives, to suspect that a member of the clergy has abused a child or threatened a child with abuse and abuse of the child will likely occur.
      • Exception for Members of Clergy: A member of the clergy is not required to report child abuse information that he or she receives solely through confidential communications made to him or her privately or in a confessional setting if he or she is authorized to hear or is accustomed to hearing such communications and, under the disciplines, tenets, or traditions of his or her religion, has a duty or is expected to keep those communications secret.
  • Exception to reporting requirement: health care services: The following persons are not required to report suspected or threatened abuse, sexual intercourse or sexual contact involving a child: (1) A health care provider who provides any health care service to a child, and (2) person who obtains information about a child who is receiving or has received health care services from a health care provider, unless, such person in (1) or (2) either (a) has any reasonable doubt as to the voluntariness of the child’s participation in the sexual contact or sexual intercourse, or (b) has reason to suspect:
    • That the sexual intercourse or sexual contact occurred or is likely to occur with a caregiver;
    • That the child suffered or suffers from a mental illness or mental deficiency that rendered or renders the child temporarily or permanently incapable of understanding or evaluating the consequences of his or her actions;
    • That the child, because of his or her age or immaturity, was or is incapable of understanding the nature or consequences of sexual intercourse or sexual contact;
    • That the child was unconscious at the time of the act or for any other reason was physically unable to communicate unwillingness to engage in sexual intercourse or sexual contact; or
    • That another participant in the sexual contact or sexual intercourse was or is exploiting the child.
  • Exception to reporting requirement: person delegated parental powers. A person delegated care and custody of a child is not required to report any suspected or threatened abuse or neglect of the child. Such a person who has reason to suspect that the child has been abused or neglected or who has reason to believe that the child has been threatened with abuse or neglect and that abuse or neglect of the child will occur may report.
  • Reports must be made immediately by telephone or in person.

Wis. Stat. Ann. §§ 48.981, 48.02(2).

Wyoming^
  • Any person.
  • Report must be made immediately either orally or in writing.
  • If a person reporting child abuse or neglect is a member of the staff of a medical or other public or private institution, school, facility or agency, such person must notify the person in charge as soon as possible (who is thereupon responsible to make the report).

Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 14-3-201–214.




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